Until now there was no way to determine the temperature of a long deceased animal. Lots of inferences were made about which animal was colder blooded or the . However which one might be colder than the other there was no way to tell. Using the conventional thermometer and stick it in its’ mouth or up the other end proved impossible.
There an indirect way to measure an extinct animals temperature. How?
Chemistry my friend chemistry, by using a paleothermometer analyzing the rare isotopes in the animals’ bones, teeth, and eggshells.
The California Institute of Technology (Caltech) reported in the online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) this week the first method for the indirect measurement of the body temperatures of large extinct vertebrates.
What are they using? Chemistry my friend chemistry, through the analysis of rare isotopes in the animals’ bones, teeth, and eggshells.
By analyzing the concentrations of two rare isotopes—carbon-13 (Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon and one of the environmental isotopes. It makes up about 1.1% of all natural carbon on Earth) and oxygen-18 (Oxygen-18 (18O) is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes.). “These heavy isotopes like to bond, or clump together, and this clumping effect is dependent on temperature. ” says Caltech postdoctoral scholar Robert Eagle, the paper’s first author. “At very hot temperatures, the isotopes expand and there is greater distances between them so there is a more random distribution. Less clumping occurs at high temperatures. At low temperatures, there is more clustering or bonding.
When a animal is alive this bonding forms a crystalline lattice that makes up bioapatite. This mineral forms the lattice like pre-structure of the tooth enamel, eggshells, and other hard body parts. Once the bone or tooth enamel is formed the isotopic composition is frozen in place and can be preserved for millions of years.
Using bioapitite may be the first indirect measurement of temperature used to compare different animal’s temperatures at the time the bone was formed. It will not tell the life history of the creature, so many mysteries still remain locked in the fossil remains of these ancient giants.
Excerpts courtesy of http://bit.ly/d0kRbI
Excerpts courtesy of en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_13
Excerpts courtesy of en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen_18
Image courtesy of cst.cmich.edu/zoogems/bone-jawAss.JPG