“Buff Paini frogs surfing on mountain tops”

Spiny frogs meeting the needs of new habitates these frogs adapted to survive.

Once upon a time in the ancient lands of South China, Tibet and Southeast Asia  the mountain ranges rose up changing the river sytems and ecology of the spiny frogs home.

It divided the population into three geographic groups over time. populations,  When the Indian tectonic plate quit pushing northward into Asia, the Himalayas rose upward indenting the Indian plate while pushing Southeast Asia and China aside towards the Pacific ocean, This sequence of events dramatically changed the home territory and physical evolution of these frogs about 55 million years ago and 15-20 million years ago.
Spiny frogs from the tribe Paini live in fast-flowing streams, requiring the male frogs to have strong forelimbs and coarse chests so that slippery females don’t get swept away by swift currents during mating.The species Quasipaa boulengeri is from the mountains of Sichuan, China. The hardest of them evolved into three distinct but related groups of spiny frogs whose evolution parallels the geological changes in the area. In Tibet roughly nine million years ago, cousins of the original spiny frogs, the Nanorana found was to adapt and thrive in cold, dry and oxygen-poor conditions.

This divergence occurred creating two new groups of frogs: the lowland Quasipaa frogs of South China and Southeast Asia and their high-altitude cousins, Nanorana in Tibet.  Scientists from the University of California, Berkeley and Kunming studied 24 different groups of the tribe Paini, gaining new insights into the collision of India and Asia,

Today the Quasipaa frogs now live in South China and Southeast Asian groups in the Truong Son mountain range on the border between Laos and Vietnam.
he movement of large land masses must also have been accompanied by climate change, the authors noted, which suggests that the forests of Central Vietnam may have served as a refuge for Paini frogs during climate oscillations. Today, Vietnam is a conservation hotspot.
“Basically, the frogs were rafting on top of the continents,” An Yin, a professor of geology at UCLA said “The tectonics control morphological evolution by transporting originally very closely related frogs so far apart they all diverge and develop very differently.” The old story of form follows function.
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